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An effective system for alerting your servers or websites. Be warned, when something will be wrong. Starting from as low as EUR 0.3 / mo. It is a small price for the safety of your servers powering critical mass of your income. Monitoring4servers.xyz brings you fast and system to monitor and track your own servers for downtime. We do not take care, if your site housing is based on cloud services from Amazon EC2, Google Cloud Compute Engine, Rackspace, MS Azure or own dedicated solution. Our ping alerting system is based on fetching of the final web page on nearly any host port, so we are abstracted from different online network layers and track just the final product. Join us now to start alerting your own host or website.


5.9.2017 – Php is a an easy-to-learn programming language. What might come in hand to many internet programmers, are cron jobs, that might be run simultaneously using cron, in one-minute intervals. One problem may arrive, when 2 same scripts start to run in the same time. PHP function getmypid may come in hand then, because this function is able to provide you current ID of running script. When the script is running, you can easily take ID of current script, and work with this function in another scripts. For example, you can easily save ID of running script, and calling cron job can first look, whether previous instance is still running. Based on this information, cron job can start to run a new instance, or decide to stop another instance, until previous ID is not available in the system (the cron job finished).

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Flea market - Things in the flea market or even junk has its price

2017-09-18, 1 months ago

The theme of things offered on the flea market is quite unique, unlike the normal market there are different rules. In the flea market you can find almost anything, you can remember. Things as diverse as a 30-year-old mixer or brochure, washing powder or Wallachian cakes, tires or old books, so I could go on endlessly. But all of these things combine one thing in the eyes of shoppers, even though the shoppers themselves do not form a single group with the same interests and goals and the market can perceive differently. One could say that what they are all about is the desire to find a real treasure here. It does not matter if it is a good package of biscuits or old glass at a low price, it is important to get the thing you want in the most convenient way. And the word advantageous here plays a significant role. We have to take into account that if something is good, it is not a generally valid property, but rather a set of several factors (economic, aesthetic, emotional, etc.) that define the situation individually for each individual. When we talk about second-hand things, the question of the value of things and, therefore, the benefits of buying them becomes even more complex.

The things on the market are usually spoken as commodities. From a flea market perspective, however, this is again quite specific and there is no exact definition. There are also things that cannot be a commodity by nature, and if they happen, they will lose by their very nature what they have been different from other things. Such things include, for example, various religious subjects. Some scientists are likely to include these items in a special group of commodities called "commodities by diversion" and which forms a subgroup of so-called "commodities by metamorphosis", whose main feature is that, although originally it is things that did not have the status of a commodity, nevertheless happened to them. In addition to this group, there is also a group of commodities by destination, primarily commodities and ex-commodities.

Thus, we can see commodification as a process that results from the interaction of time, cultural and social factors. All of these factors are exacerbated in the flea markets. However, before I get to specific examples, there are still some specificities that are linked to commodity markets. Already above, it has been said that under certain circumstances they can become commodities and knowledge, and they play a significant role in flea markets on several levels. The use of knowledge confirms and shows it in its commercial form - that, during trading, the advantage for one often means loss to another.


Plugins for speeding up websites in Joomla!

2017-10-05, 1 months ago

Today we will share with you the results of testing some of the extensions for the Joomla! Editorial system, which promise to speed up web loading and other optimizations.

Three of them, Speed Plus for Joomla, SpeedBooster for Joomla and Virtuemart Speed Booster, are paid and developed by CodingMall. Other jBetolo and JCH optimized extensions are free and promise a truly wide functionality.

Plugin SpeedPlus for Joomla

According to the authors of the plugin, the Joomla website is slower than static html due to the large number of database queries.

The SpeedPlus for Joomla plug-in makes it cached by some modules you choose in the plug-in settings to speed up both the Web site and the eshop running on Virtuemart. Its creators promise to reduce the number of queries on the database by 81%.

The SpeedPlus plug-in is £ 49.99 and the license is limited to one domain.

When using plug-ins, you may not have Joomla! and compression of gZip. It is not recommended to cache dynamic modules such as Login, Virtuemart cart, Who's online, etc.

Plugin Speed Booster for Joomla

The Plugin Speed Booster for Joomla, unlike the previous two, focuses on CSS and javascript, thus combining caching, merging and compressing CSS files and javascripts speeds up page loading.

Plugin SpeedBooster for Joomla costs for one domain £ 49.99.

Plugin Virtuemart SpeedBooster

Just like the SpeedPlus plugin, SpeedBooster for Virtuemart is based on caching certain modules.

Creators promise to reduce the number of SQL queries by up to 80%, and reduce the page load time by up to 70%, lower CPU load and less cache space for cache files (only about 10KB per product in your e-shop).

Just like SpeedPlus, Virtuemart SpeedBooster costs £ 49.99 and the license is limited to one domain.


The above plugins are compatible with the Joomla 1.5 Native, 1.6, 1.7, and 2.5 versions

System Requirements

The server should be installed with ionCube loader, Apache version 1.3.x or higher, MySQL version 4.1.18 or higher, PHP 4.x / 5.2.x and at least Joomla 1.5 or higher.

The creators recommend using all three plugins at once for the best effect. For all three plugins, they will send you a full-featured 15-day trial on demand to help you set it up.

You can also buy SpeedPlus and SpeedBooster at a bargain price of £ 89.99.

If something works for 100% Codingmall Plug-ins, then it's their support. Whenever I discovered a problem, I quickly responded to it (by email) and solved it with programmers, so only thanks to my suggestions the plugin was updated several times.

Frankly, given that the measurement results for one and the same website vary greatly in each test, I'm not able to say 100% that the plugins have the promised effect. We personally felt that the only thing that had a visible impact was to turn on the SpeedPlus for Joomla plug-in. The other two are does not have such impact on the loading rate, in my opinion.

In most of the tests, Speed Plus for Joomla has been able to raise page scores from some 50 to 70. But for some tests done over Webpagetest.org, the same page achieved similar results with or without plugins. The results differed a lot from day to day, but even when I tested the site a few minutes in a row ...

After installing the SpeedPlus plug-in, it broke CSS formatting on some pages, so the "Insert to Cart" button was instead of the original appearance in such an ugly box, and only half a button was shown on the product list in the category. They solved this problem quite quickly. After the next update, the Insert button stopped working completely. But they have solved this problem, so the final version is already usable.

Plugin jbetolo

I promised a lot from the jbetolo plugin because, despite being free of charge, it promises a combination of plugin functionality from Codingmall and has had a large number of positive ratings in the Joomla Extensions Catalog.

According to its creator, this plugin can:

  • Link javascript and CSS
  • compress javascript, css and fonts
  • move the inline javascript to the header or footer of the page
  • Minimize javascript, css and html
  • optimize image size
  • Add the correct http headers to the generated files
  • off-load the CDN server and generate CDN-friendly files
  • patch the .htaccess file for cached static content
  • input selected sources as URI data, etc.

However, as the creator states on the official site of the jbetolo plugin, you cannot expect the plugin to work immediately without the proper settings. And there will be a hitch. When I set up what I wanted from the plugin, it really made a significant acceleration, the page speed score of the site rose to 80 - but at the price of CSS broke just as SpeedPlus did, before its makers made an update, which fixed it. I tried to gradually turn on individual features, but I did not manage to get some correction. So I wrote to the author what a problem, and he really replied. He promised to look at it when I sent him access to the eshop. But after that, there was no response. So judge yourself. Try out the plugin, and if you can manage its relatively complicated settings so, that it will have a visible benefit for your website or online store, then you are lucky one.

JCH Optimize Plugin

By far the greatest hope I put into the JCH Optimize plugin, which should offer not only what the above mentioned plugins can do, but also create a so-called CSS sprite, a combination of images on the background of the web page, which should significantly speed up the loading of the web. Even this plugin has a lot of positive reviews. Here you will find a complete list of functionality of this plugin. Unfortunately, it has no effect on speeding up the load on the web either. But you can try it for free, so nothing bad to say.

Finally, I would say that none of the tested extensions for Joomla! made the miracles which I had expected from them. But who knows, maybe it really just wants to play with their settings and adapt them to your website or eshop.


The first iPhone 8 Plus allegedly exploded; the batteries are supplied by the same companies as these for Galaxy Note 7

According to the unconfirmed information by producer (and unfortunately, Apple cannot be expected to confirm this and apologize), there has been a very rare event, when one of the owners (known as Mrs. Wu) of the new iPhone 8 Plus exploded during charging.

It was supposed to happen when the 70% charge state of the battery was connected to the supplied charger, and then 3 minutes later the phone burst. Apple uses batteries from different manufacturers, namely Samsung SDI, Amperex Technology Limited and LG Chem. The first two (one of Samsung's subsidiaries, the second independent manufacturer) were battery suppliers to the problematic Samsung Galaxy Note 7, where batteries exploded, at least inflated, or just burned quite often.

But we need to wait, if this problem escalates in the case of Apple, or, on the contrary, we are concealed of some important fact. According to the photos, it does not look like some kind of fatal explosion with burning. Apple is currently investigating the incident.


Librem 5: a free mobile phone with Linux

2017-10-19, 1 months ago

Starting in September 2017, a crowdfunding campaign for a project has been launched, which makes a bit of a reckoning of Ubuntu Edge. Less than a month to the end of the campaign, and only half of the requested $ 1.5 million had to be selected.

Behind the whole project is a small Californian company Purism, engaged in the production of computers with a focus on free software, security and privacy. Purism was established only in 2014, in connection with the crowdfunding laptop campaign Librem 15, which chose more than 200% of the requested amount. The follow-up campaign for the smaller notebook Libra 13 has also been successful and Purism is now focusing its attention on the ultra-mobile segment.

Introducing Librem 5

The undisputed advantage of Librem 5 is that it is not another piece in the infinite flood of Android phones. It should contain only open / free software, which means using GNU / Linux and other related projects. He is currently building on Debian, respectively. own system called PureOS, but that does not mean that in theory it will not be possible to use any other distribution, although of course adapted to the needs of the hardware - source codes are available. Perhaps in this context, Openmoko / Neo FreeRunner or Nokii N900 should be mentioned next to Ubuntu Edge.

At the same time Librem 5 is the world's first mobile device with native IP support and encrypted and decentralized end-to-end communications. Its goal is not to collect data about users - popular hidden addition of many Chinese cheap Android phones of more or less obscure brands.

Hardware and Software

From the point of view of hardware, Librem 5 is a smartphone with a 5 "display (resolution and display technology not specified). As CPU (SoC) is currently used i.MX6, which is ARM from Freescale Semiconductor (now NXP) using 32bit Cortex-A9 kernels. It will probably be replaced by the i.MX8 chip, which is 64bit Cortex-A53 + Cortex-A72. Purism logically does not specify which specific configuration of the SoC cores will be used.

The GPU part is provided by the Vivante core (with free Etnaviv driver). In addition, the phone will carry 3GB of LPDDR3 RAM, internal 32GB eMMC storage (unfortunately no UFS) + microSD slot, unspecified camera (back and front) with flash, 3.5mm jack, power and volume keys, SIM slot, Wi- Fi, Bluetooth 4, internal debugging interface, USB Type C connector, and common sensor battery (GPS, accelerometer, gyroscope, compass, zoom, light intensity sensor).

From a security point of view, besides the absence of OS capable of snooping the user (Android, iOS), the SoC mobile section of the CPU is mentioned, and in particular hardware switches that physically turn off the camera, microphone, Wi-Fi / Bluetooth and Baseband.

PureOS, which is scheduled as the primary operating system to be delivered to Librem 5, is based on GNU and Linux. Initially, at the time of distribution of the first phones to customers, it will provide basic functionality (phone, email, message, voice, camera, web) and will be expanded over time by collaborating and developing other free applications. It is, of course, counted with WebRTC support or generally during HTML5 applications (remembering Firefox OS?) That will be able to isolate the phone from OS. Besides PureOS, support for Debian GNU / Linux, Ubuntu, Fedora, Suse, Arch Linux and SubgraphOS is also provided.

Plan to end 2017

The plan is that if the funding is secured, the developers will prepare the hardware design, let the developers develop kits, which then go into the hands of all developers and supporters, and also (more) work on the software. After a certain time when you can fine-tune and verify the necessary issues, an updated version of the hardware design will be created and production will begin. As mentioned above, initially, the phone will go to the market, supporters, with basic software equipment that will then be expanded (in the first phase, calendar, note, or PDF viewer) are mentioned.

Librem 5 - Development Plan

This is true if at least $ 1.5 million is donated. If it was 4 million, a call-in / call-out support will occur on the VoIP phone number. In the case of $ 6 million, a faster Wi-Fi / BT firmware will be programmed using reverse engineering. For a further 8 million, a free 1-year encrypted VPN tunnel service for all supporters. For 10 million, we can still add Android running applications isolated from the system. Well, then the creators add just two joking goals. With $ 20 million, the Candy Crush clone will be available free of charge, the 32 million mark is just a respectable memory on Ubuntu Edge.

The creators also want to have a unique sound for incoming calls, so whoever comes up with the best design will have Librem 5 for free. The same applies to power-on sound, SMS, video call, and e-mail alerts.

In terms of production hazards, the makers add: The project has people around the world, so it's pre-arranged for the production of individual components in China and export via Hong Kong, as well as for assembling phones in San Francisco, the distribution in Europe and a network of developers around the world.

You can only contribute $ 20. The cheapest post-guaranteed phone is $ 599, for $ 1399 you get a kit with a 24-inch monitor, keyboard and mouse (yes, Librem 5 can also serve as a full-featured computer), $ 300 up is a 30-inch monitor, more is just an enterprise bundle with more phones.

Distribution of final phones to supporters is now planned at the turn of 2018 and 2019.

What can be expected?

In terms of hardware, I would like to comment on a few things. Everything depends on the price that is set at $ 599 for supporters. When we think that comparing a closed, de facto once-firm driven Android world with an open world of GNU, Linux and other projects is not quite similar, so it can be said that in this price range, it is possible to buy a lot of decent, almost hi-end phones with Android that hardware what Librem 5 offers will crush.

I write this intentionally because Librem 5 and its creators do not yet specify a number of important elements such as battery capacity, camera parameters (whether it will support 4k videos, RAW etc.), display parameters, etc. What we know is the approximate ARM family SoC that will be used, but again there is quite chaotically listed 32bit and newer 64bit ARM generation. The size of the 3 GB of memory is also sufficient for Android, Linux might also be enough to run smoothly. The slowdown is the use of a slow eMMC repository, but remembering that UFS chips are insufficient for Huawei on the world market, it is unfortunate that a small business does not have the chance to secure the UFS chips in the required amount for a certain price.

The Librem 5 has a number of outstanding features when looking at paper parameters, of which I would like to mention some of the physical switches of some parts of the equipment.


After a year, Hewlett-Packard again resolves non-original cartridges to its printers

2017-10-19, 1 months ago

The struggle of printer manufacturers not only with producers of non-genuine, cheap cartridges, but paradoxically with their own customers is, it seems, infinite. Others tried it and Hewlett-Packard was ashamed in 2016. At that time, the use of non-genuine cartridges in printers was banned, and HP was grappling with a giant wave of criticism. HP has now released new firmwares that are once again correcting this once again emerging problem.

Printer owners with non-genuine cartridges cannot print. Whether it has been a misconduct or intent, users of the following HP Hewlett-Packard series have to deal with the problem: OfficeJet 6810, 6820, and OfficeJet Pro 6230, 6830, 8610, 8615, 8616, 8620, 8625, 8630, 8640, 8660 , X451dn, X451dw, X476dn, X476dw, X551dw, and X576dw.

If the error message appears to the printer user, there are several possible causes. In addition to some HP original ink defects, the problem is related to non-HP security chip in printer cartridges (either non-genuine cartridge or HP cartridges). In this case, the printer detects a problem and prevents further printing, with the need to replace the cartridge. Everything is due to the feature of printers called Dynamic Security. The recommended procedure is to update the firmware that disables Dynamic Security by downloading it from the HP Web site.

Hewlett-Packard has a slightly more modest tone after years, and there are court verdicts that say the printer manufacturer does not have the right to cut users from alternative cartridges. So HP just recommends using genuine corporate supplies, with a site where authenticity can be verified.

It is necessary for HP to add to the good that it is OK that it does not intend to guarantee the quality and durability of the print or the life of the print heads in the case of the use of other manufacturers' cartridges. It's similar to when a car manufacturer is also not responsible for fuelling a fuel from a dubious source (especially diesel) instead of a proper one. And especially for inkjet printers, it is appropriate to add that there are more and more models that do not have classic print heads with small cartridges, but large ink cartridges where large amounts of ink are poured - and HP is among those manufacturers.


MS Windows user and Linux programs

2017-10-24, 1 months ago

Every new potential user of some Linux distribution solves, among other habits, alternatives to their favourite and daily used Windows programs. He wants his new operating system to be full-fledged so he does not need to use dualboot Widows / Linux and occasionally boot to MS Windows. Of course, this option is common and many use dualboot if they use any specific Windows program or learn to change habits as a Linux user. I just want to show that a regular user can have both Linux installed as a single OS and its program selection will be sufficient.


Nowadays, you do not need to install some Linux distributions right away and cut some of the disk before the user is convinced that he wants to use Linux. Just download one of the Live CDs, drop it on the USB disk (https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/), boot from it and see the distribution in practice. Or install it on a virtual PC and try it at https://www.virtualbox.org/. Most of the programs I'm describing are tested or installed in Linux Mint distributions, I prefer GTK applications for the MATE desktop.


Everyone has their favourite photo viewer and editor for editing them. There are a number of programs in Linux, with distributions already in their base pack. In MS Windows I used XnView and XnConvert (formerly FastStone Photo Resizer), for those who want to use it I still have a good message, they are multiplatform and they will work in Linux http://www.xnview.com/en/. I chose the gThumb viewer for the speed and overall response and the "caja-image-converter" file extension for the bulk reduction of photos. I will mention the excellent editor GIMPhttps: //www.gimp.org/, which knows almost everyone, and those who know how to use it, they will definitely do a good job with it. If you have some RAW files on the disc (the enthusiastic photographers know what I'm writing), you can edit them and print them through RawTherapee http://rawtherapee.com/. Hugin http://hugin.sourceforge.net/, which I know from Windows, will help you build panoramas. Program Cheese is used for webcams and all you need to do with them.


Unlike "graphics" where you'll get used to other programs then Adobe Photoshop or Windows Paint, the program selection for the Internet is largely identical to MS Windows. Programs such as Filezilla, Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Skype, or Thunderbird are multiplatformed. You can also use the jabber jailbreak Gajim to use both Linux and MS Windows, or you can use the multi-protocol Pidgin https://www.pidgin.im/. You will not miss even sharing a desktop via TeamViewer http://www.teamviewer.com/sk/, which can be found on its home page. If you download torrent files, Linux will provide you with Transmission, or you can install Frostwire http://www.frostwire.com/, for example. For normal file downloading, use wget - uGet program http://ugetdm.com/, or use the DownThemAll Firefox extension! https://addons.mozilla.org/sk/firefox/addon/downthemall/.


Most Windows users use MS Office as the office. Personally, I only use this option for exotic files, I have MSO assigned to my Virtualbox under Windows where I share a folder for disk access. To create and open Linux documents in LibreOffice https://sk.libreoffice.org/, this office suite is also multiplatform and I use it as a priority for all documents and spreadsheets. There are a number of programs for browsing PDF files, such as Evince https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Evince and Okular, and I use the older version of Adobe Reader alongside Evince. When copying text, I helped Window with Clipboard History, I replaced it with Glipper desktop extension https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glipper, Parcellite is also good.


To begin with, I mention a program that almost everybody knows nevertheless on any operating system - VLC media player VLC http: //www.videolan.org/vlc/, as well as MPlayer will go with different graphics extensions such as SMPlayer http: //smplayer.sourceforge.net/en/mplayer. NERO burners can use instead Brasero https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Brasero, you can edit song tags at EasyTAG https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/EasyTAG, or convert music in SoundConverter http: // soundconverter.org /. You can find more music players in Linux, I like the simple Audacious http://audacious-media-player.org/, or Clementine https://www.clementine-player.org/, which I replaced for foobar2000. I recall from the previous article the Radio Tray Internet Radio http://radiotray.sourceforge.net/, which I replaced TapinRadio.


I deliberately opened the Windows folder with installs to go through programs I did not mention the alternatives. I will not mention all those disc cleaners, registers, and antiviruses if anyone wanted to control, for example, instead of MS Windows Partitions you can use ClamAV or its ClamTK frontend http://clamtk.sourceforge.net/. To synchronize the disk in laptop and USB external drive, you can use Allway Sync in MS Windows, same app in Linux GUI rsync - Grsync http: //www.opbyte.it/grsync/ . Daemon Tools and Win32 DiskImager replace "mintstick" in Minte, you can use console commands in other distributions or, for example, Furius ISO Mount https://launchpad.net/furiusisomount. Each distribution uses its own program to create and extract "WinRAR" archives, just add the necessary libraries by archive type. Or, you can add PeaZip http://www.peazip.org/ to your distribution. Even the Total Commander users do not have to miss, I use the multiplatform muCommander http://www.mucommander.com/, KDE is visually suited to Krusader http://www.krusader.org/. And I still remember one program. Windows partition I backed up with Macrium Reflect, Linux and other OS can clone Clonezilla http://clonezilla.org/.


I did not write about the installation of the programs, it is specific for each distribution, most of the programs are in the repositories, and a few packages have to be downloaded from the site. I wanted to show a brief selection of programs - alternatives to MS Windows programs. When I wrote this article I realized how many programs are already multiplatform - if their user is used to them, they do not have to change habits. I have found that Foxit Reader https://www.foxitsoftware.com/products/pdf-reader/ is a multiplatform, nice surprise. Linux itself has a lot of good quality programs too, and it is quite likely that after a while, MPs you downloaded will be replaced by those of the repositories. I personally use as a single OS just mentioned Linux Mint.


Flash: How do we protect the plug in the socket?

2017-10-24, 1 months ago

I've seen a few e-shops with regular electronics, and I've found a lot of sockets and elongators with descriptions like built-in surge protection, pulse overcurrent protection, and so on. So let's go to the store and buy this extension in good faith that we will keep our electronics safe.

In fact, we have only fall into the illusion of security that traders claim by failing to provide any further details on the level of protection that they are able to provide in the description.

Many articles have been described on this subject. Their common denominator, however, is relatively complex and hence hardly readable to someone who does not directly or indirectly deal with this area. So, I try to read through accessible literature with the intention of translating a few important facts from this area into the language of ordinary people.

Basic data

Let us therefore recall a few basic facts. Nominal voltage in most EU countries is 230 volts between phase and neutral conductors and the nominal frequency is 50 Hz. Any change of these values outside the defined tolerance is undesirable, as it can cause damage to property and, in the extreme case, to health and life. The quality of the grid voltage is described in EN 50160. The standard also allows for voltage fluctuations of ± 10% from the nominal value, which means that the maximum voltage range from 207 to 253 volts is allowed in the socket. Somewhere, such as datacentres, such a fluctuation is unacceptable, and therefore they use special technology for filtering (active and passive filters) and power stabilization (UPS), which are relatively expensive but also necessary equipment for safe operation of such sensitive devices. But what about us in the ordinary household?

Supply sources in modern electronics and appliances are designed to safely handle voltage variation ± 10%. Some simpler device does not register any fluctuations and the source of the laptop as well. What, however, can happen if the tolerances given by the standard are exceeded by interference in the electricity network? And what causes it at all? And what ways it can get to you?

Sources of network interference

The sources of interference are variable, let's say a few words about them as well. If we are living to the proximity of factory or hardworking neighbours with circular saws and electric welders, we can experience industrial disturbance as a consequence of switching off and shutting down large motors that are able to derive themselves as the right inductive load by generating overpowers. Disturbance can also be caused by accidental operation on the network. For example, during the Premier League halftime, 20 million English at the same time turns on a 2000W power boiler or they want to enjoy their favourite tea. This will cause a large drop in voltage. However, the dominance of the destructive effects of interference in a network have atmospheric effects, which are especially lightning. Obviously, we can figure out the situation when we have noticed distractions during the storms through the television screen (in the best case) or smudging on the radio. In the worst case, the lightning and the darkness (we love it at the champions league final) suddenly blinked. Let's give some attention to the phenomenon, called lightning.


Globally, lightning activity is relatively accurately monitored, and based on a clear map, we can see that although we are not one of the most exposed countries, we cannot afford to ignore the protection.

As NASA informs us, the average incidence of lightning strikes per square kilometre per year is about 5. Who wants to avoid lightning, the recommended destinations are Greenland, Antarctica or Kamchatka.

In order to know at least how much energy the speech is, let's know that the biggest energy strike takes about 10 to 50 μs, which is the time for a fighter to fly at a speed of about 1 cm. At this time, the current flows typically between 5 and 50 kA, which is a line current flowing in locomotive traction engines capable of move a 1000 ton train. These are approximate figures for lightning in nature because the only person who knew about the light when and where he struck to measure it accurately was Marty McFly in Back To Future. Correctly, it was 12 November 1955 at 22:04 J.

Effects when network is striked by the lightning

So we see that it is a tremendous energy in a very short time. If we wanted to imagine this, it is as if a dam had been ripped up on the slope of a narrow valley, and a rushing wave was driving down the hill. As we know, such a wave has, in addition to the devastating force of water itself, also secondary effects, and it is the flooded material it carries with itself and which also has a destructive effect on all obstacles standing in the way.

Therefore, if we return to lightning, in the case of direct or indirect intervention, we need to take into account three phenomena that, due to different laws of nature, manifest equally - dangerous overpass at the impact site and all the metallic conduits around. These three phenomena were called experts as follows:

  • Direct galvanic bonding
  • Inductive binding
  • Capacitive binding

What happens? Lightning transition will increase the potential of the earth to be transmitted to our earthing conductor and through grounding conductors (in the yellow-green pocket) to all connected devices not only for sockets but also for shields of signal cables, ie xDSL modems, routers, security devices, etc. Paradoxically, the protective element of our installation will cause over confusion to anything that is connected to the conductor via a conductor.

Inductive binding. What is it? By rapid passage of the lightning current, the electromagnetic (EM) field changes rapidly over a short period of time, and so there is an overvoltage in conductors near the lightning conductor, which again affects all connected devices. And it does not care if it is a power, coax or signal cable. And not just that.

If the EM field is large enough, it will reliably destroy all processors with high semiconductor integration, which is actually all the chips used in electronics. Of course, people in their creativity have appropriately used this phenomenon, so theoretically, this day may come when communication with tamtams and smoke signals will come again.

Capacitive binding. Since after a direct hit, the potential of all the cables in our model house will grow, it will behave like a well charged capacitor.

However if the conductor is connected at least through the power lines with the remaining objects in the vicinity, it does exactly that, when such a capacitor is scraped off. In this case, the joy of this accumulated power will also be shared by our neighbours. That is why we are talking about the capacitance.

Quite theoretically, if we have the rare fortune that a ball flash will come to us through an open window or a chimney, there will only functional source of light: a candle, because only it will be able to function after visiting this mysterious flash.

Device protection

As we have shown briefly, overpower protection is not a paranoia but a real fact. As an example of the devices to be protected, consider a family home equipped with an Internet connection, satellite TV, security device, air conditioning and solar panels. All listed devices have one thing in common - they are connected by metallic cables (power or signal) to the home distribution, and thus allow for overcurrent penetration by the methods outlined above. So let's make a summary of points that need to be addressed.

  1. Voltage supply; Main LV 230 / 400V
  2. Security device or fire alarm
  3. Telephone lines; xDSL metallic connection
  4. TV and satellite antenna
  5. Antenna leads
  6. Air conditioning
  7. Solar panels
  8. Plugs

We see, that if we want to protect this house, it is clear that it should be considered as a complex project, where it is to be consulted with experts who propose the appropriate types of surge protectors and their exact location. Both conditions must be met, otherwise the whole project is irrelevant. The foundation is, of course, honestly made and properly grounded lightning, which is nothing new. However, for some new ones, it is necessary to perform regular lightning revisions according to STN 33 1500 standard. For example, residential buildings, family houses and farm buildings are subject to a visual check every 2 years and a revision every 4 years.

In practice, this means that if we report the damage incident after the lightning strike and we do not have a valid revision report, it will be complicated to deal with the insurance company. We have the basis, let's go further with our model house.

Firstly we must explain a few concepts that are directly related to surge protectors.

In order to clearly determine where the overvoltage protection belongs, the above-mentioned standard STN EN 62305-4 was defined by the so- lightning protection zone (LPZ = Lightning Protection Zone) as follows:

  • LPZ 0A is the outside unprotected space outside the protected object in which it is possible direct lightning strikes.
  • LPZ 0B is an outer space protected by a lightning catcher, space in close proximity of the outer walls of terraces and lower buildings. There is an unlikely lightning strike in the zone. This zone is suitable, for example, for mounting antennas.
  • LPZ 1 is the inside space of a protected object. Direct lightning strike is not possible. The intensity of the electromagnetic field is dependent on the construction and the shielding method object.
  • LPZ 2 is an indoor area with an enhanced class of protection located in the LPZ 1 zone.
  • LPZ 3 is an internal space of an object or metal enclosure protected by an effective shielding against the influence of electromagnetic fields and overvoltage protections, in which, virtually no electromagnetic impulses or overvoltage from lightning.

Now a few words to mark surge protectors. In our and foreign literature we will meet two abbreviations:

  • SPD from English Surge Protection Device or
  • TVSS as the Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor

We combine the surge protectors into three types with the task of driving the lightning current and pushing the surge into the ground. The description of the technical parameters itself would be given as a separate article, we will not deal with things like spark, varistor, nominal discharge current or lightning current. The detailed technical parameters are finally stated by each manufacturer of surges. That's the big difference between the specialist dealer and the regular commerce mentioned in the introduction.

  • Type 1 (formerly B) The lightning current arrester, located at the LPZ0 and LPZ1 zones, requires a 4 kV protection level. So we can talk about rough protection in direct or near lightning strikes.
  • Type 2 (formerly C) The surge protection, which is located at the LPZ1 and LPZ2 zones, requires the required protection level of 2.5 kV, i.e. the middle protection. Protects against remote flash or switching overvoltage
  • Type 3 Surge protection (formerly D) located on the LPZ2 and LPZ3 zone interfaces. Protects up to 1.5 kVA, fine protection designed for appliances powered from sockets. This is the type of protections that are sold in regular stores, or the third degree, which will fulfil its function if the previous two stages are correctly installed.

Quite often, manufacturers offer so- Combined protection Type1 + Type2 (or referred to as B + C).

Location of SPD

  1. Start the voltage supply (NN) 400 / 230V into the house, which is the main switchboard. It is for us to enter the building, usually equipped with circuit breakers for the whole house. There we should have SPD Type 1 and Type 2 (combined) that is given to the LPZ 0 and LPZ 1 zone interfaces. Such an overvoltage protects us from overvoltage during direct and indirect lightning strikes.
  2. The second point is a security device and / or a fire alarm. This switchboard is usually located near the main switchboard. Because it needs power, we have 230V and low-voltage signal cables to the sensors. And we have the whole house. In close proximity to the device, we should have a SPD Type 3, overvoltage with an integrated high-frequency suppression filter against impulse overvoltage and interference.
  3. Another popular place for overcharge is a phone line that is widely used as an xDSL data connection. This includes SPD Type 3, usually a combined socket adapter and RJ45 or RJ11 connectors to a signal cable as shown. The advantage of this solution is that, for example, The xDSL modem is protected by both a power and a signal line by one device.
  4. On a TV and / or satellite antenna, we also use a socket adapter with a combined 230V and coaxial cable.
  5. Antenna coaxial lines must be protected by lightning arresters, between the antenna and the antenna amplifier to the point where the coaxial cable enters the house, as we know it, on the LPZ0 and LPZ1 zone interfaces.
  6. Air conditioning often has an outdoor unit on the roof of the house, it also needs to be protected between LPZ0 and LPZ1 zones with Type 1 + 2 protection.
  7. Solar panels (photovoltaic, who wants to be more professional) protect SPD Type 2 in DC circuits at input to DC / AC converter.
  8. Plugs. We use SPD Type 3. They are available as sockets, twin drawers or extension leads with integrated protection and status signalling.


So we went down to the sockets and I suppose we have the answer to the introductory question. The Type 3 tripod in a 1/2-grade socket has a placebo effect in direct or near lightning strikes. It does only what it is intended to raise the overvoltage in the event of a remote lightning strike or the overheating caused by the working circle neighbour.

Proper and therefore effective protection against overpower is neither a simple nor a cheap matter, and consultations with experts are always required. After installation, minimal revision is also recommended before and after the storm and optimally after each storm. Every protection has its own fault-free operation.

We can ask if any precaution can be taken. Something can be done. If we have a home or a home from the inside near the lightning rod of the electronics, consider relocating. We can also do "unplug action" before the expected storm, so we will completely disconnect the electronics from the power supply and the antenna arrays.



2017-11-07, 1 months ago

network - connection of computers and other devices (printers, terminals, ...) meaning

  • Data transmission and access to data
  • Communication between users
  • Sharing programs and data
  • Sharing technical resources (printers, disks, modems, remote computers, ...) Network types size
  • LAN (Local Area Network) - limited area, building, enterprise
  • WAN (Wide Area Network) - Internet, older bitnet hierarchy (the relationship between computers)
  • Client-server: server - powerful control computer; client - station (uses server services, may not have HD and FD
  • Peer-to-peer - equivalent nodes, sometimes client, sometimes server (LANtastic, ...) topology
  • Star (star)
  • Ring - Computer Interconnectionby Cables

criteria: speed, price, maximum length, average, ...

  • Unshielded twisted pair - the cheapest, slower, small maximum length
  • Coaxial cable - cheap, very widespread, acceptable speed and length
  • Shielded twisted pair - fast x more expensive, larger cable diameter
  • Glass fiber cable - excellent parameters
  • Radio connection
  • Telephone lines - modem


modulation and demodulation of the PC signal (digital) x telephone line (analog), digital telephone network - only special interface

types of modems: internal (card), external (serial port connection), fax modem (sends faxes to disk) Network card

connection of computer with cable distribution Network operating system

  • Network coordination and management
  • Resource allocation
  • Ensuring security and access rights

Client-server: Novell NetWare, Windows NT, Unix

Peer-to-peer: Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95/98, Lantastic, ... Networking computers

· NC, NetPC - computers without HDD, FDD, ... (savings: purchase price, maintenance of the information system) Internet

· Global interconnection of local networks, development since the 1960s (US Department of Defense)

· source of information

· Decentralized, without owner, relatively easy to join new entrants

· Intranet - use of Internet technologies in the LAN, part of Novell NetWare 4.11, the expected new version of Novell NetWare to run under the TCP/IP network protocol (IPX protocol, TCP/IP is a unifying element of the Internet)

· Telephone line (switched connection - modem need), fixed line, radio connection

· Separate computer x local area network

· Provider - access provider (Permanent Internet-connected servers, accessed through its servers)

· Charges - provider (flat rate + connection time, various options) + Telecom (phone calls, no matter the distance of the recipient) Internet service users

E-mail - communication with other participants

  • Obtaining information
  • providing information

· Different services: Telnet, File Transfer between Computers (FTP), Gopher, Interest Network Conferences - NEWS (Usenet), Wide Area Information Server (WAIS), World Wide Web (WWW) Email - Email

· Sending letters (text files, other data files)

· Electronic mailbox (directory on the server disk - after login to the Internet the incoming mail will be forwarded)

· Mail programs (Microsoft Exchange, Internet Mail, Pegasus, ...), mostly OS or shareware

· Newsgroups (electronic conferences) - group communication on a particular theme, there are also "live" conferences (direct communication, sometimes video) World Wide Web -WWW

· World Wide Web (WWW) - Hypertext Information Service

· Hypertext: any part of a text document (word, sentence, image, ...) as a link (hyperlink) to another document or to another location in the same document, documents can be physically stored on different computers on the Internet

· WWW Client (Browser, Browser - Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, ...) - allows the hypertext network of documents to browse (mostly allows access to other services: Telnet, Ftp, Gopher, NEWS, WAIS)

· HTML - HyperText Markup Language, several levels of Visual Basic (today 5.0)

· Search programs: search for information on the Internet (AltaVista, Yahoo, List, ...)

· Distribution of text information in HTML (texts, documentation, help, ...), Windows 98 user interface (expected in June 98) to be based on the appearance of web pages and browser operation Providing information

· Provider server: More efficient, limited capacity (MB), easy and fast access to information

· Own Internet server: necessary landline, any amount of information (disk capacity) IP address identification

· IP address (must have every device - computer, ...)

· IP address: 4 numbers 0 to 255, dots separated (, individual parts of the address are allocated centrally (address must be unique), internal address assignment is internal Domain names

· Can be used instead of IP address (eg server1.organisation.com)

· Simpler, non-mandatory (mostly servers that provide some services), multiple service servers have multiple names (alias names) - eg ftp.organisation.com, gopher.organisation.com, organisation.com, ...

· Individual parts separated by a dot indicate domains (administrative units of the Internet), the order of words is hierarchical

· Domains - State, organization, body within the organization, ...

· The highest domain: state abbreviation, USA - exception: several domains characterizing the nature of the organization - EDU, COM (company), GOV (governmental organization), ORG (other organizations) E-mail address

· Identification of an electronic mailbox

· Username + @ + domain name of the computer (or domain name assigned to the organization)

· For example, george@eunet.com URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

· Document identifier

· Name of the service (FTP, Gopher, WWW, ... more precisely the protocol) + name of the computer with the document + marking the document within the computer

· Gopher: //gopher.cesnet.cz (document available by Gopher, on gopher.cesnet.cz computer, document on the computer is not mentioned, it is the "main" document that forms the root of the document tree on the given computer)

· Http://www.cesnet.cz/...rmation.html (document accessible via HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol), computer www.cesnet.cz, documenting the document within the computer is html / cz / basic-information .html

Information bulletin boards or BBS

· Bulletin Board Service (BBS) - Computers equipped with a modem connected to a telephone line providing various information services (often spreading freely available SW)

· Access free, paid or combined

· Options: Copying freely-available programs and data files, e-mail, newsgroups


All 500 supercomputers from the Top 500 are already running Linux

2017-11-16, 1 months ago

The new version of Top 500 supercomputers has emerged. It shows the rapid rise of Chinese machines and the lag of the United States, but it also pleases all linux entusiasts: Linux runs on all five hundred of the world's fastest computers.

Linux rules supercomputers. The regular half-year edition of the Top 500 has brought Linux's final victory in this area. While the last two supercomputers with IBM AIX were left a year ago, Linux is now installed on all five hundred of the fastest machines.

It was waiting for almost twenty years, for the first time Linux was in the rankings in 1998. But when the ranking was first released in 1993, Linux was just a toy. It did not even have a Tux Mascot, Tux was drawn three years later. Not long after, however, Linux began to push its roots and began to roll up the supercomputer rankings.

The new ranking also showed a very rapid increase in the number of Chinese supercomputers, the number of which even surpassed machines from the United States for the first time. While China has 202 charts, only 143 countries have won. A year ago, however, the situation was still reversed: the US 169 and China 160.

The US Department of Energy has already launched a large grant program to support the construction of new supercomputer exascals. Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols sighed at ZDNet: But with the anti-science ruling regime, America will lose its technological advancement.

Most supercomputers today are made up of a large network of smaller nodes composed of common computers. The first such supercomputer was in 1993 Beowulf built in NASA. Since the developers did not have the budget to acquire a traditional supercomputer, they built it from 16 common PCs with a 486 DX4 processor. Up to now, 437 of the 500 largest supercomputers in the world are built.

Linux was ranked five years later when Unix reigned between supercomputers. But Linux quickly picked up and grew steadily on the ladder. He became dominant in 2004 and has not left his position ever since. According to Linux Foundation, there are two factors behind this: on the one hand, it is the ability to customize the operating system to a particular application, because each supercomputer is a unique machine with a dedicated designation. The second factor is the price that does not matter the amount of installation - Linux at twenty nodes will cost you as much as twenty thousand knots.


Instagram Stories is here! Why should you care?

2017-12-14, 1 months ago

Facebook announced at the beginning of March 2017 the opening of a new advertising platform for advertisers - an Instagram Stories ad. This is a long-awaited change that will be appreciated by all brands and businesses that are interested in Instagram users' direct involvement in popular personal stories. We have just tested this hot novelty. Are you interested in how it was?

The new ad platform was available through the API, and later will be available to all advertisers. Facebook now offers so-called "Reach" campaigns that are ideal for branding companies and brands. Gradually, however, it plans to deploy ad formats such as web clicks, web conversions, or application installs.

To create this ad, an image or video dimension of 9:16 or more (600 pixels in width at a minimum) is required. This is the first full-screen Instagram ad format. You can use both photos and videos.

Suitable add-on for branded campaigns

And these are the exact specifications of the new format:

  • One image or video (not in Carousel)
  • Video within 15 seconds
  • The image must not contain texts, labels, or messages
  • A click is not available now, but is planned for the future

Based on these specifications, it's clear that the ad is a very good addition to brand campaigns. With a length of up to 15 seconds and a full mobile screen overlay, this ad will become a great addition to TV campaigns. It can also be expected that for younger targeting campaigns, this format will gradually replace TV advertising.

First results from testing

In several Insta Stories tests, we've managed to get 1,000 impressions for about $ 1 in the 10/10 relevance score. That's $ 100 with 100,000 users hit. In the meantime, it is not possible to post clicks (this is the next update), but now the CTR (clicks on the advertiser profile from the top logo) is now 1 - 2%. This is a cost-effective ad for Instagram ads, so the format is no more expensive. Thus, the ad has the great potential to become part of all brand campaigns.

Insta Stories do not offer an active click at this time, so we would recommend an emphasis on the emotion and brand of the company. You want to capture and keep product or brand awareness for as long as possible.

The advantage of the new format is the fact that Stories are very well viewed and users are not used to advertising on this platform (Insta Stories). So the impact on brand awareness can not only be very interesting now. This type of ad could be compared to In-stream ads on YouTube that have a great impact on brand awareness and subsequent shopping behavior when properly scheduled.


Ataribox: The legend returns powered by Linux and the AMD processor

When did you last play on your Atari? If you have a taste, you can soon return to your games and remember the 80s. Atari is preparing a legend return, this time called Ataribox. It uses Linux.

Additional details, including hardware, software and approximate price, are now known. Today, an Indiegogo campaign will be launched, and we can only hope it will be as successful as the ZX Spectrum Next campaign.

We now know that the Ataribox design will be based on the Atari 2600 classical console, but everything will be new inside: an AMD processor with Radeon graphics, an operating system built on Linux and HDMI. According to the authors, more than a hundred classic games will be preloaded in the console. Their specific list is not yet available, but Atari Interactive releases some information on social networking sites, so we already know that it will be for example Asteroids, Missile Command and Breakout.

We also know the approximate price, which should be between $ 250 and $ 300. The design is based on classic shapes, but it approximates the look of today's technology. But if you want to be more retro, you will be able to order a variant in wood. The Joystick also reminds of the original device, but it is still nearly 40 years away.

The advantage is that it is not a classic retro console, where you play only original games from the 1980s. Because inside of the modern processor and operating system, some new games will be played. Which and in what quality will show up detailed information about the hardware used.

The question is whether a similar console is interested in the players. For such money, it is possible to buy a modern Xbox or PlayStation, so Atari really has to turn to those who have experienced the original time. They would probably want something more retro, ideally a new series of some of Atari's classic machines.

On the other hand, executive equipment offers entertainment to all members of the family. My dad plays Space Invaders, kids can play Minecraft. We will see if customers will demand that.



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